JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH
Eisenach, Germany 1685 - Leipzig 1750

Musikalisches Opfer, BWV 1079

The musical offering,  (1747) – 8′
Arrangement by Anton Webern

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ARNOLD SCÖENBERG
Vienna 1874 - Los Angeles 1951

Gurre-Lieder: Lied der Waldtaube

Songs of Gurre: Song of the dove
Chamber version (1900-1911) - 13 '

Nancy Fabiola Herrera, mezzo-soprano

 

FELIX MENDELSSOHN
Hamburg 1809 - Leipzig 1847

Symphony no. 5 in Re, “The Reformation” op. 107

(1830) - 27 '

I. Andante - Allegro con Fuoco - Andante - meno Allegro
II. Lively cheerful
III. Andante
IV. Chorale: Ein 'feste Burg ist unser Gott. Riding a motorbike - Cheerful lively - Majestic cheerful

Barcelona Symphony Orchestra
Vasily Petrenko, conductor
Nancy Fabiola Herrera, mezzo-soprano

 

FIRST VIOLINS Giulia Brinckmeier *, concertino guest / Maria José Aznar / Sarah Bels / Walter Ebenberger / Ana Galán / Natalia Mediavilla / Katia Novell / Anca Ratiu / Jordi Salicrú / Ariana Oroño * SEGONS VIOLINS Emil Bolozan,  assistant / Maria José Balaguer / Jana Brauninger / Patricia Bronisz / Clàudia Farrés / Melita Murgea / Robert Tomàs VIOLES Duccio Beluffi *, guest soloist / Josephine Fitzpatrick, assistant / Christine de Lacoste / Michel Millet / Miquel Serrahima / Jennifer Stahl CELLO Jose Mor, soloist / Lourdes Duñó / Vincent Ellegiers / Marc Galobardes / Jean Baptiste Texier BASSES Christoph Rahn, soloist / Apostle Kosev / Matthew Nelson FLUTES Francisco López, soloist / Beatriz Cambrils OBOES Disa English, soloist/ José Juan Pardo / Molly Judson, English horn CLARINETS Larry Passin, soloist / Josep Fuster, assistant and clarinet in me b / Alfons Reverté, bass clarinet FAGOTS Thomas Greaves,  assistant / Noah Cantú / Slawomir Krysmalski, contrafagot TROMPES Juan Manuel Gómez, soloist / David Bonet TRUMPETS Angel Serrano, assistant  / Adrián Moscardó TROMBONS Gaspar Montesinos / Vicent Pérez / Raúl García, bass tromboneTIMBALES Marc Pino ARPA Magdalena Barrera, soloist PIANO Jordi Torrent * HARMONIUM Joan Seguí *

ORCHESTRA MANAGER
Walter Ebenberger  
MUSICAL DOCUMENTATION MANAGER Begoña Pérez
TECHNICAL MANAGER Ignasi Valero
STAGE CREW Luis Hernández *

* Collaborator

NOTES

by Joan Grimalt

JS Bach's Six-Voice Ricercare is the highlight of the gift -The musical offering– which the composer made to the Prussian emperor Frederick the Great. The work consists of a series of elaborate counterpoint works and is still considered a pinnacle of polyphony today. The theme, which is attributed to Frederic himself, belongs to the pathetic style, full of reverse, dissonant intervals. Legend has it that he introduced him to Bach so that he could improvise variations and flee as soon as he arrived in Berlin, where Sebastian was going to see his son Emanuel. Here, it is presented instrumented by Webern according to the so-called “timbre melody”, an original Schönberg procedure that consists of changing the instrument to half melody, so that, almost imperceptibly, the sound changes (the timbre ) but not the rest of the musical material. Webern's Bach is monumental, and equates to the Germanic myths of Mozart, Beethoven, or Brahms. With its instrumentation, it brings it closer to the sounds of its time but preserves, with meticulous indications, all elements of the interpretive tradition of the s. xviii.

Les Songs of Gurre they are the work of a young Schönberg and, therefore, tonal, postromantic. Above all, it is surprising the hybrid genre of the profane oratory, which combines the song with the dramaturgy of an opera and a symphony orchestra of monumental staff. Within a legendary Germanic framework, very close to the Wagnerian imaginary, the Dove song closes the first part of the play with a tragic narrative. Gurre is the name of a ruined castle in Denmark. The poet Jens Peter Jakobsen places a traditional Danish legend: the unfortunate King Valdemar IV lived a forbidden love with the young Tove; his wife, Queen Helvig, found out and had her killed.

Composed in the years 1900-1901, between the sextet The transfigured night, op. 4 and the symphonic poem Pelleas and Melisande, op. 5, the work was instrumented and corrected many times until its premiere, in 1913. The text, rich in obscure images, gives rise to a whole series of traditional resources of descriptive music: navigation, gallop, bells . The movement oscillates between the swing of the pastoral world and the march, now gloomy, sometimes aggressive. The richness in detail foreshadows the incredible iconic density of the Schönberg style. With each new audition new facets are discovered, new links between the elements of the work.

The Fifth Symphony by Felix Mendelssohn is subtitled "The Reformation", in reference to the Lutheran Reformation. In fact, it was his second symphony, but the composer renounced it, so when it was published posthumously it remained as the fifth and last. The father of Fanny and Felix Mendelssohn was the son of the great enlightened philosopher Moses Mendelssohn. Despite their Jewish origins, the parents of the two composers decided to baptize and educate them as Protestant Christians, and then they and they all converted. 1830 marked the 300th anniversary of the Augsburg Confession (1530), which gave political legitimacy to Luther's theses. Mendelssohn, on his own initiative, decided to write the play for the planned celebrations, but the revolutionary turmoil of that year eventually shifted the premiere until 1832.

The first movement begins with a late introduction, in major mode, which foreshadows the triumphal end and refers to the Gregorian melody of the Magnificat and theAmen of Dresden, which Wagner will lavish on his Parsifal. Then the minor mode obscures the rest of this initial movement, marked by a martial and dysphoric tone. TheAmen of Dresden interrupts this busy speech, just before the resumption of the main theme, as a moment of respite and looking up.

The second movement performs the function that, in a classical symphony, the scherzo or the minuet would do: relieve tensions, oxygenate. It begins with the martial rhythms of the previous movement, but after a central section (the trio) of folk echo, the piece closes in a comedic, humorous tone.

The third performs the function of slow motion. The beginning is reminiscent of a traditional Hebrew song. Hevenu Xalom Alekhem, perhaps in reference to the culture and religion of the ancestors. Soon, the chamber song (without words) is moved to the operatic recitative (also without text), with the consequent dramatic rise in tension. The finale recovers the initial serenity and prepares the transition to the finale.

It is a luminous transition, based on the hymn Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott (God is our strength), in reference to Psalm 46 (45). This is one of the most symbolic Lutheran hymns for Protestantism, with political echoes. The whole finale, which culminates the work triumphantly, combines the classical sonata form with the variation of the hymn mentioned, in German Choralvariation. It comes to be a musical commentary on the hymn just sung. Here, it sounds like a daring attempt to bring into dialogue two very different, perhaps incompatible traditions: the world of the liturgy and the symphonic world in which the new German bourgeoisie was building a spiritual refuge.

LYRICS

ARNOLD SCÖENBERG
Vienna 1874 - Los Angeles 1951

Gurre-Lieder: Lied der Waldtaube

Tauben von Gurre! Sorge quält mich,
vom Weg über die Insel her!
Kommet! Lauschet!
Tot ist Tove! Nacht auf ihrem Auge,
das der Tag des Königs war!
Still ist ihr Herz,
doch des Königs Herz schlägt wild,
tot und doch wild!
Seltsam gleichend einem Boot auf der Woge,
wenn der, zu dess Empfang die Planken huldigend sich gekrümmt,
des Schiffes Steurer tot liegt, verstrickt in der Tiefe Tang.
Keiner bringst ihnen Botschaft,
unwegsam der Weg.
Wie zwei Ströme waren ihre Gedanken,
Ströme gleitend Seit 'an Seite.
Wo strömen nun Toves Gedanken?
Die des Königs winden sich seltsam dahin,
suchen nach denen Toves, finden sie nicht.
Weit flog ich, Klage sucht 'ich, fand gar viel!

Den Sarg sah ich auf Königs Schultern
Henning stürzt 'ihn;
finster war die Nacht, eine einzige Fackel
brannte am Weg; die Königin hielt sie, hoch auf dem Söller,
rachebegierigen Sinns.
Tränen, die sie nicht weinen wollte,
funkelten im Auge.
Weit flog ich, Klage sucht 'ich, fand gar viel!

Den König sah ich,
mit dem Sarge fuhr er, im Bauernwams.
Sein Streitroß,
das oft zum Sieg ihn getragen,
zog den Sarg.
Wild starrte des Königs Auge,
suchte nach einem Blick,
seltsam lauschte des Königs Herz
nach einem Wort.
Henning sprach zum König,
aber noch immer suchte er Wort und Blick.
Der König öffnet Toves Sarg,
starrt and lauscht mit bebenden Lippen,
Tove ist stumm!
Weit flog ich, Klage sucht 'ich, fand gar viel!

Wollt 'ein Mönch am Seile ziehn,
Abendsegen läuten;
doch er sah den Wagenlenker
and other than Trauerbotschaft:
Sonne sank, indes die Glocke
Grabgeläute tönte.
Weit flog ich, Klage sucht 'ich und den Tod!

Helwigs Falke war's, der grausam
Gurres Taube zerriß.

LYRICS

ARNOLD SCÖENBERG
Vienna 1874 - Los Angeles 1951

Songs of Gurre: Song of the dove

Pigeons of Gurre! Anguish torments me
along the way through the island!
Come on! Listen!
Tove is dead! The night has spread over his eyes,
which for the king were the light of day.
His heart has stopped,
but the king's heart beats convulsively,
dead and yet convulsed.
Strangely, it looks like a boat that, to start the waves,
he bows confidently to his curved flank.
The helmsman is already dead, entangled in the deep seaweed.
No one pays tribute to them,
the route is navigable.
His thoughts were like two rivers
flowing side by side.
Where are Tove's thoughts going now?
Those of the king wander lost
looking for Tove's, but they can't find them.
I’ve flown far looking for pain and have come across it often!

I saw the coffin on the king's shoulders,
Henning held him.
The night was gloomy, only a torch burning
on the way: the queen was wearing it, on top of the battlements,
with the soul thirsty for revenge.
Tears she didn't want to cry
they shone in his eyes.
I’ve flown far looking for pain and have come across it often!

I saw the king walking with the coffin,
dressed in a peasant gipo.
His corsair,
than often on the battlefield
he led him to victory, the coffin was now coming.
The wild eyes of the king
they were looking for a look!
The king's mad heart
I wanted to hear a word!
Henning spoke to the king,
but he was looking for another word, another look.
The king opens the coffin of Tove,
stare and listen with trembling lips…
Tove is silent!
I’ve flown far looking for pain and have come across it often!

A monk wanted to ring the bell
for evening prayer,
but on seeing the carriage
he noticed the sad news.
The sun was setting
while the bell rang for the dead.
I flew away looking for pain and death!

It was Helwig's hawk
who, cruelly, tore Gurre's dove!

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